The world today is such that tackling elaborate enterprise problems needs more than the same old tricks. Enter “Design Thinking,” a radical and disruptive approach. This is no longer just for designers. It’s for anyone seeking to resolve complicated troubles in a fresh, human-centric way.

Understanding Complex Business Problems

Complex business problems refer to challenges and issues that are intricate, multifaceted, and often difficult to solve within the typical framework of business operations. These problems are characterized by their complexity, involving various interrelated factors that make them resistant to straightforward solutions. In the context of businesses, complex problems can arise from internal and external factors and may require a deep understanding of the industry, market dynamics, and organizational intricacies.

Some key features of complex business problems include:

  1. Multidimensionality: These problems involve multiple dimensions, factors, and variables that interact with each other. Understanding the relationships among these elements is essential for devising effective solutions.
  2. Interconnectedness: Complex problems are often interconnected, meaning that changes in one aspect of the business may have ripple effects across different areas. Addressing one issue may impact others, and a holistic approach is necessary.
  3. Ambiguity: There may be ambiguity in the information available, and the problem itself may lack clear boundaries or definitions. Deciphering the root cause and determining the most appropriate course of action can be challenging.
  4. Dynamic Nature: Business environments are dynamic, with constant changes in market conditions, consumer preferences, and technological advancements. Complex problems are influenced by these dynamics, requiring adaptive and flexible strategies.
  5. Strategic Significance: Complex problems often have a significant impact on a business’s strategic objectives, performance, and long-term sustainability. Resolving these issues is crucial for maintaining competitiveness and achieving organizational goals.

Examples of complex business problems include market disruptions, technological obsolescence, organizational restructuring, navigating regulatory challenges, addressing ethical dilemmas, and managing stakeholder relationships in the face of diverse interests.

Solving complex business problems typically requires a comprehensive approach that combines analytical thinking, strategic planning, collaboration, and adaptability. Organizations may need to engage in thorough analysis, leverage diverse perspectives, and implement innovative solutions to effectively address and overcome these challenges.

Understanding Design Thinking

Design Thinking isn’t just a system; it’s an attitude that places human needs and experiences at the forefront of trouble-fixing. This approach, rooted in empathy and creativity, has its origins in the design industry. It has since discovered widespread application across numerous industries and business types.

The Key Stages of Design Thinking


Design Thinking starts with empathy – understanding and anticipating how others feel. In business, it means putting yourself in the shoes of customers, employees, or others affected by the problem. By learning about their perspectives, challenges, and goals, you set the stage for a clearer definition of the problem.


Once you understand the problem through empathy, the next step is to define it clearly. This involves summarizing the gathered information, identifying patterns, and framing the problem in a way that guides the creative process. A well-defined problem is the basis for effective solutions.


This stage is about letting creativity shine. It encourages open thinking and generating many ideas. No idea is too outlandish, as the goal is to explore various possibilities. Through brainstorming and teamwork, groups can tap into their collective creativity to discover innovative solutions.


Design Thinking stresses the importance of making tangible representations of ideas. Prototypes serve as a way to test and refine concepts quickly. This iterative process helps identify flaws, confirm assumptions, and focus on the best solutions. It also aids communication among team members and stakeholders, ensuring a shared vision.


The final stage involves testing prototypes with the target audience. This step provides valuable feedback and real-world insights that refine and improve solutions further. Testing is an ongoing process, not a one-time event, ensuring the best solution emerges.

The Relevance of Design Thinking in Business Problem Solving

Design Thinking goes beyond product design; it’s a versatile approach to solving various business problems. Therefore, its relevance is undisputed. The following are the specific reasons why DT is super relevant for solving complex business problems:

1. Customer-Centric Innovation:

In a business world focused on customer satisfaction, understanding and addressing the needs of your audience is crucial. Design Thinking puts the customer at the center of problem-solving, leading to better products and services and fostering brand loyalty.

2. Cross-Functional Collaboration:

Design Thinking thrives on collaboration. Bringing together people with different skills and backgrounds creates a rich creative environment. In solving complex business problems, cross-functional teams ensure a holistic understanding and generate comprehensive solutions, breaking down silos and fostering a culture of innovation.

3. Adaptive Problem Solving:

Complex business problems often need flexible solutions. Design Thinking’s iterative nature allows teams to experiment, learn from failures, and continually refine their approaches. This adaptability is vital in a changing business environment where rigid methods may fall short.

4. Employee Engagement and Empowerment:

Design Thinking empowers employees at all levels to contribute to problem-solving. This inclusivity harnesses the collective intelligence of the workforce, fostering a sense of ownership and engagement. When employees feel valued, they become more inspired and innovative, positively impacting the organizational culture.

A Real-World Example of How a Business Solved a Complex Business Problem Using DT

One notable example of a business successfully applying the design thinking approach is the transformation of Airbnb’s customer experience.

In the early days of Airbnb, the company faced a significant challenge related to trust and safety. Hosts were hesitant to open their homes to strangers, and guests were equally concerned about the quality and safety of the accommodations. To address this complex problem, Airbnb adopted a design thinking approach.

  1. Empathize:

The Airbnb team started by empathizing with both hosts and guests. They conducted extensive research, interviews, and user observations to understand the fears, needs, and pain points of users.

  1. Define:

Based on their research, Airbnb defined the core problem as a lack of trust between hosts and guests. This trust deficit was hindering the growth and success of the platform.

  1. Ideate:

The ideation phase involved brainstorming and generating a wide range of ideas to build trust within the community. This included features such as user reviews, verified profiles, and a secure payment system.

  1. Prototype:

Airbnb quickly created prototypes of the proposed solutions, including a simple review system, identity verification processes, and a secure payment platform. These prototypes were tested with a small group of users to gather feedback.

  1. Test:

The testing phase involved refining the prototypes based on user feedback. Airbnb implemented iterative changes, continuously testing and improving the features to ensure they addressed the trust issues effectively.

  1. Implement:

Once the features were refined and proven to be effective through testing, Airbnb implemented them across the platform. This involved rolling out the new trust and safety features to all users.

The design thinking approach allowed Airbnb to tackle the complex problem of trust and safety by understanding user needs, generating innovative solutions, and iteratively testing and implementing those solutions. As a result, Airbnb successfully transformed its platform into a trusted community, contributing significantly to its rapid growth and success in the sharing economy.

Note: The above example is based on the author’s secondary research. The author does not claim complete accuracy of the same.

Implementing Design Thinking in Your Organization

Implementing Design Thinking in Your Organization

1. Cultivate a Design Thinking Culture:

For Design Thinking to be effective, it must be ingrained in the organizational culture. This involves fostering a mindset that values empathy, creativity, and collaboration. Leadership plays a crucial role in promoting and modeling these values, creating an environment where Design Thinking can flourish.

2. Invest in Training and Resources:

Providing employees with the necessary skills and resources is crucial for the successful implementation of Design Thinking. Investing in training programs, workshops, and tools equips teams with the knowledge and skills to successfully follow Design Thinking methodologies. This investment pays off in the form of empowered and innovative teams capable of tackling complex organizational problems.

3. Create Dedicated Design Thinking Teams:

Establishing cross-functional teams dedicated to Design Thinking projects can expedite the problem-solving process. These teams bring together individuals with diverse expertise, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the problem at hand. By empowering these teams to operate independently, organizations can foster a culture of innovation and agility.

4. Embrace Failure as a Learning Opportunity:

Design Thinking recognizes that not every idea will be successful, and failure is part of the innovation process. Organizations must create an environment where failure is viewed as a learning opportunity rather than a setback. This mindset shift encourages risk-taking and experimentation, crucial elements of effective Design Thinking.

Overcoming Challenges in Design Thinking

While Design Thinking offers a powerful framework for solving complex business problems, challenges may arise during its implementation. It’s essential to be aware of these challenges and proactively address them:

1. Resistance to Change:

Implementing Design Thinking may face resistance, especially in organizations with established processes and hierarchies. Overcoming this resistance requires effective communication about the benefits of Design Thinking and demonstrating its positive impact through pilot projects.

2. Time and Resource Constraints:

The iterative nature of Design Thinking can be perceived as time-consuming. To address this concern, teams should allocate dedicated resources, set realistic timelines, and communicate the long-term benefits of adopting a more thorough problem-solving approach.

3. Lack of Understanding:

Design Thinking can be misunderstood or perceived as a design-only process or in its more modern format as a 1-2 day training. Educating stakeholders at all levels about the concepts and benefits of Design Thinking and building a platform for disciplined application is essential for its successful integration into the organizational culture.


In an era where organizations face increasingly complex challenges, the need for innovative problem-solving approaches has never been more critical. Design Thinking provides a human-centric, iterative, and collaborative framework proven to be highly effective in solving complex business problems. 

By embracing Design Thinking, organizations can unlock creativity, foster collaboration, and create solutions that truly resonate with the needs of their customers and stakeholders. As demonstrated by IBM and Airbnb, the impact of Design Thinking extends beyond problem-solving; it influences organizational culture, enhances employee engagement, and ultimately drives sustained success in a rapidly evolving business landscape. So, embark on the journey of Design Thinking and witness your organization transform challenges into opportunities for growth and innovation.]

About the author

A Haryanvi by origin, an entrepreneur at heart, and a consultant by choice, that’s how Ajay likes to introduce himself! Ajay is the Founding Partner at Humane Design and Innovation Consulting (HDI). Before embarking on HDI, Ajay established the Design Thinking and Innovation practice at KPMG India, laying the foundation for his later venture. His 16+ years of professional career spans various roles in product and service design, conducting strategy workshops, storytelling, and enabling an innovation culture. He has coached 50+ organizations and 2000+ professionals in institutionalizing design and innovation practices. He loves to blog and speak on topics related to Design Thinking, Innovation, Creativity, Storytelling, Customer Experience, and Entrepreneurship. Ajay is passionate about learning, writing poems, and visualizing future trends!

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